FORMS AND METHODS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
E. Dorofeeva1, R. Gubaydullina2
1Kazan Federal University (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)email@example.com,
2Kazan Federal University (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)firstname.lastname@example.org
Various forms and methods of problem-based learning are attributable to the most proficient program modes in foreign language classes at higher education institutions. They are distinguished by students’ cognitive self-sufficiency level. A problem-based explanation of the learning material, partially research activity, heuristic discussion, problem-based individual research activity, problem-based lectures, discussions, role-plays are considered to be the problem-based learning methods. The contradiction between knowledge and ignorance makes up the backbone of the mentioned education technique. The necessity of searching for missing knowledge, solving the educational tasks, and the searching itself, demonstrated by a teacher using this method, make students’ “experience” a problem-based situation. It is the case of interacting with problem learning information (material) which is defined as a ‘cognitive need’. It aspires to gain knowledge from a teacher, find it by him/herself, ‘discover’ and take in something new that is in the students’ course and which solves the conflict of the educational problem. A problem-based explanation of the learning material is performed in classes in two types: monologic (a lecture or story) and dialogical (a discussion or workshop).
A partially research activity being used in seminars and heuristic discussions is headed by special questions motivating students to individually discourse, intensively search for answers
The problem-based individual research activity is student’s independent, individual search for a decision making, dealing with a problem and then the sequence of all exploring work to achieve the goal. In other words, students form a problem themselves and deal with it, solve it with a teacher’s follow-up control.
A problem-based lecture is not a simple introducing of the information but creating problem-based situations that cause a cognitive activity, ambition and assures conscientious acquisition of knowledge by students through understanding, “admitting” and solving these situations in collaboration with a teacher. The key element is that “formers are independent as much as possible and the latter is charged with general oversight”.
A problem-based workshop allows to put learners under the conditions when intellectual collaboration is essential.
A problem-based discussion with a project advancement is appropriate when the content of the learning material is connected with issues of a scientific and social character, challenges and problems that gives an opportunity to elaborate the solutions in simulated and real implemented projects.
The presence of a problem can be used in a role play as well. A settlement of a given problem-based situation is integral to this type of work. In its turn, it intensifies speaking motivation. In this case, a role play is defined as a student’s spontaneous behavior as a reaction to his/her group mates in the certain situation where the student being one of the participants has to naturally improvise. A requirement to find the solution is determined by free communication.
The problematical character can be applied in classes with educational television. Giving a searching character to the class, it promotes students’ intellection and their thinking. Creating problem situations with educational television is more effective than creating cases by a verbal method since it allows to better understand the essence of an educational challenge.
Keywords: education, problem-based learning, form and methods, a foreign language, contradiction, problem-based lecture, problem-based discussion, problem-based explanation of the learning material, problem-based workshop, partially research activity, student’s individual research activity
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