SHAMANISM-THE FIRST FORM OF MANIPULATIVE PRACTICE
Valentina N. Pervushina1*, Vladimir S. Ostapemro2, Nadezhda M. Morozova3 Nadezhda A. Vlasova4, Irina V. Nazarova5
1(DSc) in Philosophy, full professor firstname.lastname@example.org
2(DSc) in Pedagogy, full professor email@example.com Russian State University of Justice, Central Branch, Voronezh
3(DSc) in Philosophy, full professor firstname.lastname@example.org
4Candidate of philological Sciences, senior lecrurer email@example.com
5Candidate of philological Sciences, associate Professor firstname.lastname@example.org Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Voronezh
The article is dealt with the problem of manipulation of public consciousness. It was known that the problem of manipulation of public consciousness was regarded mainly within the framework of psychological and political sciences. In social and political literature manipulation of public consciousness is offered as an applied aspect of this phenomenon -specific techniques, methods, and mechanisms of manipulation of individual and group consciousness in the field of business, commercial advertising, marketing, business ethics, psychological and information warfare, propaganda techniques, rules of persuasion, etc. Manipulation in this context is being understood as a means of controlling the behavior of a person (group) in psychological terms.
In the article an alternative way of conceptualizing manipulation is pointed out. It is articulated that manipulation is a social phenomenon. It is necessary to study it at a higher conceptual level, as a fundamentally important philosophical concept, located at the junction of socio-philosophical, political, linguistic, ethical and aesthetic discourses, closely related to the key themes of social philosophy: the problems of social and spiritual existence of human being, freedom and the functioning of power relations. Manipulation is understood as a complex social phenomenon at the intersection of different fields of knowledge and cannot be considered as a problem exclusively of economic, political, psychological or ethical nature. The majority of authors define manipulation in terms of either the actions or dispositional attitudes of actors as the methodological basis of their research.
In the article it is argued the necessity of the functional and existential approaches to theorizing manipulation as a social phenomenon, studying it in terms of historical development. Such constitutive conception of manipulation focuses on its historical forms and its transformation in different types of society; provides analysis of ontological connection between power-function and manipulation, manipulation and freedom. In this context shamanism as a first practice of manipulation of public consciousness is analyzed.
Keywords: manipulation, public consciousness, functional approach, existential approach, power- function, freedom, shaman, myth, religion, ideology
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