THE NOMINATION OF HUMAN INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN SOMATIC PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURE LANGUAGES
Alla A. Fokina1, Anna L. Kolyago2*, Elena L. Petrova3 & Tatyana N. Belyaeva4
1As. Prof., Mari State University, Russia, email@example.com
2As. Prof., Mari State University, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
3As. Prof., Mari State University, Russia, email@example.com
4As. Prof., Mari State University, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
The phraseological fund of any language is national cultural heritage and it represents the indisputable treasure of people, which contains centuries-old experience of their labor and spiritual activity. Human intelligence is not considered out of language and its ability as ability to generation and perception of speech. In the anthropocentric paradigm the principle of language comprehension in the close connection with person’s life prevails, and a person is put first, but language is its main defining and composing characteristic. According to it a main objective of comparative linguistics becomes relevant, namely determination of language regularities and identification of ethnic specificity of phraseological units of different languages.
The article is devoted to the study of semantic features of the phraseological units containing the somatic lexeme голова / вуй / head of the Russian, Mari and English languages. The contrastive analysis of the composition of somatic phraseological units is allowed to reveal complete similarities and differences at the semantic level among phraseological units of the languages of different structure. The object of this study is the phraseological units of the Russian, Mari and English languages with meaning of positive evaluation of personal mental abilities. The goal of the study is to carry out the structural and typological analysis of the phraseological units with the component голова of the Russian language in comparison to the phraseological units containing components вуй / head of the Mari and English languages through the prism of positive connotation. The achievement of the aim is carried out by the solution of certain tasks among which there is a determination of semantic equivalence of the compared phraseological units of the different structure languages, the identification of various degree of their structural and typological similarity.
The modelling of phraseological units on the basis of the inner form has universal character as it can be observed equally in different languages. Considering the degree of similarity of the phraseological image and meaning, stylistic colour, lexical and grammatical organization, it is possible to classify several variants of interlingual phraseological equivalents: 1) complete equivalents coinciding in the meanings at the lexical and grammatical levels; 2) incomplete equivalents which are characterized by a lack of complete similarity of grammatical structure; 3) incomplete equivalents which do not have similarity of lexical components; 4) equivalents with complete difference at the lexical and grammatical levels.
Keywords: phraseological unit; component; the Russian language; the Mari language; the English language; semantics
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